Jinan Jeesun CNC Machinery Co., Ltd

How Does A Plasma Cutter Work: Things You Should Know

how does a plasma cutter work

Plasma cutter, as an important cutting style, is widely used in different kinds of industries. However, few people know exactly how does a plasma cutter work, which, undoubtedly, affects the proper use of a plasma cutter machine.

One basic question will have to be explained if we want to know well of plasma cutter: what is plasma? Plasma can be regarded as the forth state of matter after the state of solid, liquid and gas. Generally, matter changes from one state to the other by transformation of energy, Take water, for example, it will become liquid when a certain amount of heat is applied to ice, which is an obvious state change from solid to liquid. When headed continuously, the heat level will increase and it will become steam, which is the gas state.  if the heat levels increase more, the gas that makes up the steam will become ionized and electrically conductive, what is so-called plasma.

when some gas, such as oxygen, nitrogen, argon or even air, is forced through a small nozzle orifice inside the torch, plasma arc formation begins, the electric arc which is generated from the external power supply is then introduced to this high pressured gas flow, resulting in what is commonly referred to as a “plasma jet”.  The plasma jet immediately reaches temperatures up to 22000° C, quickly piercing through the work piece and blowing away the molten material.

how does a plasma cutter work
how does a plasma cutter work

The Plasma cutter uses the heat generated by arcing between the material and electrode inside the torch to partially melt or evaporate the metal and removes the molten metal by high-speed plasma momentum to form a cutting slit.

Working with different gases, plasma cutter can cut a variety of metal materials which are difficult to cut by oxygen, especially non-ferrous metals, such as stainless steel, aluminum, copper, titanium, nickel, etc. the main advantage of the plasma cutter is the high cutting speed for some metal with of small thickness, especially when cutting ordinary carbon steel sheets, the speed can reach 5-6 times of the oxygen cutting, the cutting surface is smooth with small heat deformation and the heat affected zone.

gantry cnc plasma cutter machine
gantry CNC plasma cutter machine

Plasma cutter is thus widely used in different industries and fields, including automobiles, locomotives, pressure vessels, chemical machinery, nuclear industry, general machinery, engineering machinery, steel structures, ships, etc.

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